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MessagePosté le: Mar 4 Juil - 09:02 (2017)  William The Conqueror --> Répondre en citant

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William the Conqueror
by Jacob Abbott

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William the Conqueror was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. The descendant of Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the style William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.

The impact on England of William's conquest was profound; changes in the Church, aristocracy, culture, and language of the country have persisted into modern times. The Conquest brought the kingdom into closer contact with France and forged ties between France and England that lasted throughout the Middle Ages. Another consequence of William's invasion was the sundering of the formerly close ties between England and Scandinavia. William's government blended elements of the English and Norman systems into a new one that laid the foundations of the later medieval English kingdom. How abrupt and far-reaching the changes were is still a matter of debate among historians, with some such as Richard Southern claiming that the Conquest was the single most radical change in European history between the Fall of Rome and the 20th century.

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Clip from The Normans (BBC Two, 2010).William is eight years old when his father goes on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem(i)William the Atheling (circa 1103-1128)mThis was the last invasion of Normandy during William's lifetime.[41] In 1058, William invaded the County of Dreux and took Tillires-sur-Avre and ThimertThree of William's horses were killed under himHaving established the primacy of his archbishopric over that of York, and with William's approval, Lanfranc excommunicated rebels, and set up Church or spiritual courts to deal with ecclesiastical mattersWilliam responded by subjecting the English to a reign of terror1028&ndash;cThe Norman army was thus forced to attack uphill, placing them at a disadvantageOn Christmas Day, 1066, he was crowned king in Westminster AbbeyThe second, which included some who became William's firm supporters, such as Robert, Count of Eu, Walter Giffard, Roger of Mortemer, and William de Warenne, faced the other invading forceWilliam negotiated a marriage in 1049 to Matilda of Flanders, a descendant of the old Saxon House of Wessex and daughter of Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Adela, daughter of Robert II, King of FrancePresiding over numerous church councils, William and his bishops passed important legislation against simony (the selling of church offices) and clerical marriageMore details: Privacy Policy Terms of Use Contact Us You're almost done! You will soon receive an activation emailPlease note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are neededIn that year Edward was about 36 and William 13 years oldListen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the "William the Conqueror" article dated 5 July 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the articleAt first, most of the newly settled Normans kept household knights and did not settle their retainers with fiefs of their own, but gradually these household knights came to be granted lands of their own, a process known as subinfeudationMain article: Norman conquest of England ConsequencesYou can opt out at any timeHarold's brother Tostig and Harald Hardrada invaded Northumbria in September 1066 and defeated the local forces under Morcar and Edwin at the Battle of Fulford near YorkLegend has it, that the body split open because it had rotted so much before burialWhat was put into his coffin was stolen in 1562 all except a thigh bone9596 ^ Douglas William the Conqueror pThe Church, under the influence of the Gregorian reform, held the view that the sin of extramarital sex tainted any offspring that resulted, but nobles had not totally embraced the Church's viewpoint during William's lifetime.[18] By 1135 the illegitimate birth of Robert of Gloucester, son of William's son Henry I of England, was enough to bar Robert's succession as king when Henry died without legitimate male heirs, even though he had some support from the English nobles.[19] ^ The reasons for the prohibition are not clearHe had reason to hate his original nameIn addition, Canterbury and Durham Cathedrals were rebuilt and some of the bishops' sees were moved to urban centresOn his journey south, William began constructing further castles at Lincoln, Huntingdon, and Cambridge and placed his supporters in charge of these new visible expressions of Norman power in England, among them William Peverel, thought to be his illegitimate son, at Nottingham and Henry de Beaumont at WarwickHereward's forces attacked Peterborough Abbey, which they captured and lootedWilliam undoubtedly possessed considerable powers of leadership and courage1097x9)" ((subscription or UK public library membership required)) 48a4f088c3

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